Optimisations of AVR programs using avr-gcc

Programming Techniques

Data types

Loops and conditional statements

Loops can be written in an optimised way. Atmel suggests for (;;) {} for endless loops. For loops with an ending condition GCC produces slightly smaller code when the do {} while (condition); statement is used instead of a while (condition) {}.

Using pre-increments (++i) wisely can also reduce your code size. Using pre-increments or post-increments in statements makes no difference at all: The expression ++i; will generate the same amount of code as i++;. But when you use the result of the increment in a loop condition or a conditional statement then the situation changes. To see how, consider the following code:

if (i--) {
    // do something

This code will be translated into something like:

When we use pre-decrement form (if (--i) { … }), we can potentially save two operations: the copy operation and the compare. In fact, the generated code might read like:

Compiler Flags

Use short types
Set the cost of inline calls
--param inline-call-cost=2
Prevents or limits the compiler from automatically inlining small functions automatically for speed. Doing so will usually make the program faster, but if the routine is used a lot you'll end up with a larger FLASH usage.
Don't include unused function and data
Generally used with --gc-sections. This causes each function to be placed into a separate internal memory section, which --gc-sections can then discard if the section (function) is unreferenced. Those two together will only help if you have a bunch of unused functions in your code, such as when you are using a library compiled with the option and linked statically.
Note that if you have any "naked" functions in the placed in an .initN or .finiN section, you should also mark the function with a "used" attribute to prevent it's being optimised out. (Thanks to David Boone.)
Compile a freestanding program
-ffreestanding and void main() __attribute__ ((noreturn));
Tell the compiler your main function is not returning. This saves some bytes on the stack.
Linker Relaxation
Almost always a win. Note that this is a linker flag that is passed to the linker using the -Wl flag.
Enables linker relaxations. By default, the linker links functions will a full CALL statement, which is wasteful if two functions are near each other. Relaxations will do more in the future, but currently (AFAIK) just replace CALL statements with RCALL where possible to save a few bytes.
Call Prologues/Epilogues
Your application must be large enough for this to be a win. Take a close look at the code size before and after to make sure that this will actually decrease your code size.
Whole Program Optimisation
--combine -fwhole-program
Using these two flags will turn on whole program optimisation, but can only be done on C code (which is typical for an AVR). The catch is that you have to modify your Makefile to have it execute only a single command-line call to avr-gcc with *all* of your C files and all compiler and linker flags. GCC will then combine, compile, and link all the code into the final ELF file, but this also allows it to do whole program optimisation.
Loop optimisation
This option is new in GCC 4.3.0. It will vectorise the outer loop when multiple loops are nested for a size benefit.
Wide types
When using a type that occupies multiple registers, such as long long on a 32-bit system, split the registers apart and allocate them independently. This normally generates better code for those types, but may make debugging more difficult. The option -fno-split-wide-types will stop this.

Examples of compilation flags

The following section shows a set of compiler options that were useful on some of my projects. Please note that the effect of one option can decrease the code size as well as increasing it. The effect varies from project to project, so the proposed set of options should be taken with a pinch of salt.

avr-gcc v4.2.2

-std=gnu99 -W -Wall -pedantic -Wstrict-prototypes -Wundef -Werror
-funsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -ffunction-sections -fpack-struct -fshort-enums
-ffreestanding -Os -g -gdwarf-2
--combine -fwhole-program

avr-gcc v4.3.3

-std=gnu99 -W -Wall -pedantic -Wstrict-prototypes -Wundef -Werror
-funsigned-char -funsigned-bitfields -ffunction-sections -fpack-struct -fshort-enums
-ffreestanding -Os -g -gdwarf-2
--combine -fwhole-program
-fno-inline-small-functions -fno-split-wide-types -fno-tree-scev-cprop